Cryptography and SSL/TLS Toolkit



openssl-passwd, passwd - compute password hashes


openssl passwd [-help] [-crypt] [-1] [-apr1] [-aixmd5] [-5] [-6] [-salt string] [-in file] [-stdin] [-noverify] [-quiet] [-table] [-rand file...] [-writerand file] {password}


The passwd command computes the hash of a password typed at run-time or the hash of each password in a list. The password list is taken from the named file for option -in file, from stdin for option -stdin, or from the command line, or from the terminal otherwise. The Unix standard algorithm crypt and the MD5-based BSD password algorithm 1, its Apache variant apr1, and its AIX variant are available.



Print out a usage message.


Use the crypt algorithm (default).


Use the MD5 based BSD password algorithm 1.


Use the apr1 algorithm (Apache variant of the BSD algorithm).


Use the AIX MD5 algorithm (AIX variant of the BSD algorithm).


Use the SHA256 / SHA512 based algorithms defined by Ulrich Drepper. See

-salt string

Use the specified salt. When reading a password from the terminal, this implies -noverify.

-in file

Read passwords from file.


Read passwords from stdin.


Don't verify when reading a password from the terminal.


Don't output warnings when passwords given at the command line are truncated.


In the output list, prepend the cleartext password and a TAB character to each password hash.

-rand file...

A file or files containing random data used to seed the random number generator. Multiple files can be specified separated by an OS-dependent character. The separator is ; for MS-Windows, , for OpenVMS, and : for all others.

[-writerand file]

Writes random data to the specified file upon exit. This can be used with a subsequent -rand flag.


openssl passwd -crypt -salt xx password prints xxj31ZMTZzkVA.

openssl passwd -1 -salt xxxxxxxx password prints $1$xxxxxxxx$UYCIxa628.9qXjpQCjM4a..

openssl passwd -apr1 -salt xxxxxxxx password prints $apr1$xxxxxxxx$dxHfLAsjHkDRmG83UXe8K0.

openssl passwd -aixmd5 -salt xxxxxxxx password prints xxxxxxxx$8Oaipk/GPKhC64w/YVeFD/.

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